Anxiety

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ESSENTIAL RESEARCH
Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Clinicians should be aware that meditation programs can result in small to moderate reductions of multiple negative dimensions of psychological stress. Thus, clinicians should be prepared to talk with their patients about the role that a meditation program could have in addressing psychological stress. Stronger study designs are needed to determine the effects of meditation programs in improving the positive dimensions of mental health and stress-related behavior.
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Collaborative care for depression and anxiety problems.
Collaborative care is associated with significant improvement in depression and anxiety outcomes compared with usual care, and represents a useful addition to clinical pathways for adult patients with depression and anxiety.
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Testing standard and modular designs for psychotherapy treating depression, anxiety, and conduct problems in youth: a randomized effectiveness trial.
The modular approach outperformed usual care and standard evidence-based treatments on multiple clinical outcome measures. The modular approach may be a promising way to build on the strengths of evidence-based treatments, improving their utility and effectiveness with referred youths in clinical practice settings. Trial Registration  clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01178554.
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Change in mental health after smoking cessation: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Smoking cessation is associated with reduced depression, anxiety, and stress and improved positive mood and quality of life compared with continuing to smoke. The effect size seems as large for those with psychiatric disorders as those without. The effect sizes are equal or larger than those of antidepressant treatment for mood and anxiety disorders.
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The anxiolytic effect of Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 involves vagal pathways for gut-brain communication.
In this colitis model, anxiety-like behavior is vagally mediated. The anxiolytic effect of B. longum requires vagal integrity but does not involve gut immuno-modulation or production of BDNF by neuronal cells. As B. longum decreases excitability of enteric neurons, it may signal to the central nervous system by activating vagal pathways at the level of the enteric nervous system.
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ESSENTIAL RESEARCH
Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for people with cancer during active treatment.
This systematic review indicates that exercise may have beneficial effects at varying follow-up periods on HRQoL and certain HRQoL domains including physical functioning, role function, social functioning, and fatigue. Positive effects of exercise interventions are more pronounced with moderate- or vigorous-intensity versus mild-intensity exercise programs. The positive results must be interpreted cautiously because of the heterogeneity of exercise programs tested and measures used to assess HRQoL and HRQoL domains, and the risk of bias in many trials. Further research is required to investigate how to sustain positive effects of exercise over time and to determine essential attributes of exercise (mode, intensity, frequency, duration, timing) by cancer type and cancer treatment for optimal effects on HRQoL and its domains.
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ESSENTIAL RESEARCH
Quality of life, fertility concerns, and behavioral health outcomes in younger breast cancer survivors: a systematic review.
Younger women with breast cancer were found to experience distinct psychosocial and menopause-related concerns, weight gain, and physical inactivity. A need for more longitudinal research, including efforts at intervention to manage these symptoms and adverse health outcomes, remains.
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ESSENTIAL RESEARCH
Anxiety, depression and stress in pregnancy: implications for mothers, children, research, and practice.
This body of evidence, and the developing consensus regarding biological and behavioral mechanisms, sets the stage for a next era of psychiatric and collaborative interdisciplinary research on pregnancy to reduce the burden of maternal stress, depression, and anxiety in the perinatal period. It is critical to identify the signs, symptoms, and diagnostic thresholds that warrant prenatal intervention and to develop efficient, effective and ecologically valid screening and intervention strategies to be used widely.
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Non-specialist health worker interventions for the care of mental, neurological and substance-abuse disorders in low- and middle-income countries.
Overall, NSHWs and teachers have some promising benefits in improving people's outcomes for general and perinatal depression, PTSD and alcohol-use disorders, and patient- and carer-outcomes for dementia. However, this evidence is mostly low or very low quality, and for some issues no evidence is available. Therefore, we cannot make conclusions about which specific NSHW-led interventions are more effective.
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Depression and anxiety in long-term cancer survivors compared with spouses and healthy controls: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Our findings suggest that anxiety, rather than depression, is most likely to be a problem in long-term cancer survivors and spouses compared with healthy controls. Efforts should be made to improve recognition and treatment of anxiety in long-term cancer survivors and their spouses.
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Maternal prenatal anxiety and downregulation of placental 11β-HSD2.
These findings provide evidence for an association between prenatal maternal mood and downregulation of placental 11β-HSD2. Results are consistent with raised maternal anxiety being associated with increased fetal exposure to maternal cortisol, and support the hypothesis that this may be one mechanism underlying fetal programming by prenatal stress.
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ESSENTIAL RESEARCH
Long-term quality-of-life outcomes after radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting: the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-4 randomised trial.
For men in SPCG-4, negative side-effects were common and added more stress than was reported in the control population. In the radical prostatectomy group, erectile dysfunction and urinary leakage were often consequences of surgery. In the watchful-waiting group, side-effects can be caused by tumour progression. The number and severity of side-effects changes over time at a higher rate than is caused by normal ageing and a loss of sexual ability is a persistent psychological problem for both interventions. An understanding of the patterns of side-effects and time dimension of their occurrence for each treatment is important for full patient information.
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Family response to critical illness: postintensive care syndrome-family.
It has been suggested that the manner in which healthcare workers communicate with family members and the way in which families are included in care and decision-making, may affect long-term outcomes. Preventive strategies for optimal communication and inclusion in care are reviewed.
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Insomnia and the risk of acute myocardial infarction: a population study.
Insomnia is associated with a moderately increased risk for AMI.
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Long-term psychosocial consequences of false-positive screening mammography.
False-positive findings on screening mammography causes long-term psychosocial harm: 3 years after a false-positive finding, women experience psychosocial consequences that range between those experienced by women with a normal mammogram and those with a diagnosis of breast cancer.
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Cognitive-behavioral stress management reverses anxiety-related leukocyte transcriptional dynamics.
In early-stage breast cancer patients, a 10-week CBSM intervention can reverse anxiety-related upregulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression in circulating leukocytes. These findings clarify the molecular signaling pathways by which behavioral interventions can influence physical health and alter peripheral inflammatory processes that may reciprocally affect brain affective and cognitive processes.
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Screening, assessment, and care of anxiety and depressive symptoms in adults with cancer: an American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline adaptation.
Although clinicians may not be able to prevent some of the chronic or late medical effects of cancer, they have a vital role in mitigating the negative emotional and behavioral sequelae. Recognizing and treating effectively those who manifest symptoms of anxiety or depression will reduce the human cost of cancer.
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ESSENTIAL RESEARCH
Duration of menopausal vasomotor symptoms over the menopause transition.
Frequent VMS lasted more than 7 years during the menopausal transition for more than half of the women and persisted for 4.5 years after the FMP. Individual characteristics (eg, being premenopausal and having greater negative affective factors when first experiencing VMS) were related to longer-lasting VMS. Health care professionals should counsel women to expect that frequent VMS could last more than 7 years, and they may last longer for African American women.
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ESSENTIAL RESEARCH
Mindfulness-based stress reduction for healthy individuals: A meta-analysis.
MBSR is moderately effective in reducing stress, depression, anxiety and distress and in ameliorating the quality of life of healthy individuals; however, more research is warranted to identify the most effective elements of MBSR.
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Absence of the gut microbiota enhances anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine response to acute stress in rats.
In stress-sensitive F344 rats, absence of the gut microbiota exacerbates the neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to acute stress and the results coexist with alterations of the dopaminergic turnover rate in brain upper structures that are known to regulate reactivity to stress and anxiety-like behavior.
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ABOUT
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities. This excessive worry often interferes with daily functioning, as individuals with GAD typically anticipate disaster, and are overly concerned about everyday matters such as health issues, money, death, family problems, friendship problems, interpersonal relationship problems, or work difficulties. Individuals may exhibit a variety of physical symptoms, including feeling tired, fidgeting, headaches, numbness in hands and feet, muscle tension, difficulty swallowing, upset stomach, vomiting, diarrhea, breathing difficulty, difficulty concentrating, trembling, irritability, sweating, restlessness, sleeping difficulties, hot flashes, rashes, and inability to fully control the anxiety (ICD-10). These symptoms must be consistent and ongoing, persisting at least six months, for a formal diagnosis of GAD.Wikipedia
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