H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori)

A bacteria found in the stomach and is known to cause ulcers and sometimes stomach cancer and other digestive issues.
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ESSENTIAL RESEARCH
Helicobacter pylori infection and the development of gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer develops in persons infected with H. pylori but not in uninfected persons. Those with histologic findings of severe gastric atrophy, corpus-predominant gastritis, or intestinal metaplasia are at increased risk. Persons with H. pylori infection and nonulcer dyspepsia, gastric ulcers, or gastric hyperplastic polyps are also at risk, but those with duodenal ulcers are not.
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Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection: the Maastricht III Consensus Report.
The global burden of gastric cancer is considerable but varies geographically. Eradication of H pylori infection has the potential to reduce the risk of gastric cancer development.
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A standardized mouse model of Helicobacter pylori infection: introducing the Sydney strain.
The Sydney strain of H. pylori is available to all and will provide a standardized mouse model for vaccine development, compound screening, and studies in pathogenesis.
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Helicobacter pylori eradication to prevent gastric cancer in a high-risk region of China: a randomized controlled trial.
We found that the incidence of gastric cancer development at the population level was similar between participants receiving H pylori eradication treatment and those receiving placebo during a period of 7.5 years in a high-risk region of China. In the subgroup of H pylori carriers without precancerous lesions, eradication of H pylori significantly decreased the development of gastric cancer. Further studies to investigate the role of H pylori eradication in participants with precancerous lesions are warranted.
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Effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori on incidence of metachronous gastric carcinoma after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer: an open-label, randomised controlled trial.
Prophylactic eradication of H pylori after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer should be used to prevent the development of metachronous gastric carcinoma.
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Gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori: a combined analysis of 12 case control studies nested within prospective cohorts.
These results suggest that 5.9 is the best estimate of the relative risk of non-cardia cancer associated with H pylori infection and that H pylori does not increase the risk of cardia cancer. They also support the idea that when H pylori status is assessed close to cancer diagnosis, the magnitude of the non-cardia association may be underestimated.
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ESSENTIAL RESEARCH
Risk for gastric cancer in people with CagA positive or CagA negative Helicobacter pylori infection.
When compared with uninfected subjects, persons infected with CagA positive H pylori are at considerably increased risk of gastric cancer. CagA negative H pylori are less strongly linked to malignancy and may only be associated with diffuse type disease.
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Increased risk of noncardia gastric cancer associated with proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms.
A proinflammatory cytokine genetic profile increases the risk of noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma but not other upper gastrointestinal cancers, possibly by inducing a hypochlorhydric and atrophic response to gastric H. pylori infection.
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Helicobacter pylori infection induces gastric cancer in mongolian gerbils.
We have successfully demonstrated that long-term infection with H. pylori induces adenocarcinoma in Mongolian gerbils. The observations are thus highly suggestive of the involvement of H. pylori infection in gastric carcinogenesis in humans.
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Lymphocytes in the human gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori have a T helper cell 1 phenotype.
These observations show that gastric T cells resemble the Th1 type, which may explain their failure to induce immunity to H. pylori and their ability to contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric disease.
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Helicobacter pylori and interleukin 1 genotyping: an opportunity to identify high-risk individuals for gastric carcinoma.
Combined bacterial/host genotyping may provide an important tool in defining disease risk and targeting H. pylori eradication to high-risk individuals.
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Clinical relevance of the cagA, vacA, and iceA status of Helicobacter pylori.
vacA s1, cagA, and iceA1 are markers of H. pylori strains that are more likely to lead to ulcer disease.
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Helicobacter pylori and atrophic gastritis: importance of the cagA status.
Infection with cagA-positive H. pylori strains is associated with an increased risk for the eventual development of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia.
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Meta-analysis of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and gastric cancer.
H. pylori infection is a risk factor for gastric cancer. The heterogeneity of reported results is caused by differences in the selection of controls, patient age, and the site and stage of gastric cancer.
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Clinical and pathological importance of heterogeneity in vacA, the vacuolating cytotoxin gene of Helicobacter pylori.
H. pylori strains of vacA signal sequence type s1a are associated with enhanced gastric inflammation and duodenal ulceration. vacA s2 strains are associated with less inflammation and lower ulcer prevalence.
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Heightened inflammatory response and cytokine expression in vivo to cagA+ Helicobacter pylori strains.
These results indicate that infection with cagA+ H. pylori strains is associated with higher grades of gastric inflammation, correlating with enhanced mucosal levels of IL-8, and increased risk of peptic ulceration.
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High levels of aberrant DNA methylation in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosae and its possible association with gastric cancer risk.
It was indicated that H. pylori infection potently induces methylation of CGIs to various degrees. Methylation levels of specific CGIs seemed to reflect gastric cancer risk in H. pylori-negative individuals.
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Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics in Europe and its relationship to antibiotic consumption.
In many countries the high rate of clarithromycin resistance no longer allows its empirical use in standard anti-H pylori regimens. The knowledge of outpatient antibiotic consumption may provide a simple tool to predict the susceptibility of H pylori to quinolones and to macrolides and to adapt the treatment strategies.
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A new Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin determinant, the intermediate region, is associated with gastric cancer.
Together these data show that the vacA i-region is an important determinant of H pylori toxicity and the best independent marker of VacA-associated pathogenicity.
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Helicobacter pylori colonization is inversely associated with childhood asthma.
This study is the first to report an inverse association between H. pylori seropositivity and asthma in children. The findings indicate new directions for research and asthma prevention.
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A bacteria found in the stomach and is known to cause ulcers and sometimes stomach cancer and other digestive issues.
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